Nutrition and food science, which began to develop rapidly in the 19th century, put an end to the view of food as simply food. Food science focused instead on the various chemicals of which food is composed. These chemical nutrients were isolated, defined and related to health, then scientists learned how to manufacture nutritional supplements to combat inadequate nutrition.
To eat is a necessity, but to eat
intelligently is an art
The development of food science helped mankind to raise the standard of nutrition of the inhabitants of many backward areas, to increase the efficiency of the systems of production and distribution of agricultural products and to improve the living conditions of rural populations.
Food science also helped in food preservation - the treatment and packing of perishable foodstuffs to prevent their deterioration for as long as possible. The treatment involves the prevention of infection by micro-organisms and the stabilizing of the physical condition of the whole.
These were all spectacular advances in food science but they left a large part of the world unaffected. Scientists began manufacturing food supplements in the form of protein supplements, mineral additives, vitamins and so on, but around the globe, malnutrition and the many diseases that follow, still kill millions of people who might be healthy if they had a chance to benefit from modern knowledge.
Food and nutrition is still the major problem in many countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.