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Food intake by the seven countries cohorts of Crete and Netherlands 40 years apart

Our estimates of changes in food consumption over the past 40 years, using male Cretan and Dutch cohorts, indicate a general increase in fish and sea food consumption between 1960 and the year 2000 and a decrease in the consumption of bread, potatoes, eggs and milk & yogurt. In addition, consumption of sugar products decreased in both the elderly cohorts whereas consumption of pastries increased in comparison to the 1960 records. Meat consumption decreased in the Zutphen cohort, in contrast to both the Cretan cohorts whist fruit consumption increased in the former cohort, again in contrast to the Cretan cohort. The changes seen in the Dutch cohort with regard to meat intake appear to be different to those observed 25 years after the start of the Seven Countries Study, at which time an increase was found in meat consumption.

Changes in the consumption of other food groups after 25 years were in the same direction as those found in the present study, 40 years after the initiation of the Seven Countries study.


 
Daily food consumption of the Cretan and Zutphen Seven Country cohort survivors in 2000
and the original Cretan and Zutphen cohort in 1960.

Cretan

Zutphen

1960-5 Feb-Sept (n=31)
7 day record men 40-60 yrs
Summer 2000
(n=117)
Dietary history men 80-96 yrs
July-August
1960 (45 men aged 40-60)
7 day record
Summer 2000
122 men
aged 80-98
Dietary history
Food groups¹ (g per d) Mean Mean (SD) p-value² Mean Mean (SD)       p²
Bread 380 103 (83) <0.0001 252 131 (47) <0.0001
Cereals 30 115 (88) <0.0001 17 26 (28) <0.001
Potatoes 190 96 (72) <0.0001 252 109 (56) <0.0001
Legumes 30 73 (79) <0.0001 2 7 (12) <0.0001
Vegetables 191 164(116) <0.05 227 130 (50) <0.0001
Fruit 464 230(203) <0.0001 82 252 (174) <0.0001
Meat 35 51 (44) <0.0001 138 101 (40) <0.0001
Fish/seafood 18 28 (26) <0.001 12 22 (20) <0.0001
Eggs 25 12 (25) <0.0001 27 15 (13) <0.0001
Cheese 13 21 (19) <0.0001 31 29 (21) NS
Milk/yogurt 235 169(156) <0.0001 447 344(215) <0.0001
Oil & fats 95 89 (47) <0.05 79 39 (21) <0.0001
Pastries 0 9 (21) <0.0001 29 45 (29) <0.0001
100% alcohol 15 11 (21) <0.0001 3 12 (14) <0.0001
Sugar products consisting of at least 60% sugar 20 15 (19) <0.01 72 53 (39) <0.0001


A. Kafatos, Ch. Hatzis, M.Linardakis, F. Bervanaki, J. Moschandreas
Univerity of Crete, Greece
D. Kromhout, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM, The Netherlands

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