Background: Oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL) is considered a patho-physiologically relevant process in atherogenesis. Whereas the effect of high egg consumption on plasma Cholesterol and LDL levels were widely searched, the effect on LDL oxidation was rarely considered especially as related to egg composition designed by chicken feeding method.
Objective: The study was designed to determine changes in LDL oxidation following consumption of High-Mufa, a novel functional egg attained by modifying laying hen diet, compared to high Pufa (18:2) "Normal" egg.
Design: Seventeen healthy men and women were placed on three consecutive diets lasting 3 weeks each. The first diet consisted of 2 "normal" eggs a day eaten with meals, the second and the third diet contained 2 "AOX" (enriched with vitamin E, Carotenoids and Selenium) and 2 Aox+High Mufa (enriched with Mufa and reduced Pufa-18:2) eggs, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline- following 3 weeks of no-egg diet, at 3, 6 and 9 weeks and plasma lipoproteins and LDL susceptibility to oxidation were measured.
Results: Consumption of two regular eggs per day for 3 weeks resulted in a minor increase of total cholesterol levels but a 45% decrease in lag time required for LDL oxidation. LDL oxidizability and cholesterol levels were not improved on AOX eggs. However, when subjects consumed the AOX-HMUFA egg, LDL oxidation lag time was significantly reduced, (results comparable to the no-egg baseline diet). Apo-A-I and Apo-G-100 levels were not affected by the egg consumption.
Conclusion: Modification of egg composition to produce a novel egg, rich in antioxidants and MUFA, was found beneficial in preventing the increase in LDL oxidizability resulting from regular (HPUFA) egg intake. Using the high AOX-HMUFA eggs, which are compatible with the Mediterranean diet, in the daily diet it is thought to be advantageous regarding the potential risk related to high egg consumption, due to high oxidizability of Cholesterol-Pufa-esters - mostly Linoleate esters.
Niva Shapira, Irit Maor, Dita Presser, Ruth Moshe, Michael Aviram
Lipid Research Laboratory Rambam Medical Center.
The Bruce Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences, Haifa, Israel.